HISTORY OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI IN URDU PDF

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During the summer ofa Nubian army along with a contingent of Armenian refugees were histoory on the Egyptian border, preparing for a siege against Aswan. Few structures associated with Saladin survive within modern cities.

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Seeing that confrontation was unavoidable, Saladin prepared for battle, taking up a superior position at the Horns of Hamahills by the gorge of the Orontes River. This was intended to cement an alliance with the Artuqids and to impress other emirs in Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Sunni Islam Shafi’i [1] [2] [3].

Jerusalem capitulated to his forces on Friday, 2 Octoberafter a siege.

Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, — The Bedouin were also accused of trading with the Crusaders and, consequently, their grain was confiscated and they were forced to migrate westward. In the wake of Nur ad-Din’s death, Saladin faced a difficult decision; he could move his army against the Crusaders from Egypt or wait until invited by as-Salih in Syria to come to his aid and launch a war from there. Saladin climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government by virtue of his military successes against Crusader assaults against its territory and his personal closeness to al-Adid.

Setton University of Wisconsin Press, Marquette University Press,pp. Al-Adid’s advisers were also suspected of promoting Saladin in an attempt to split the Syria-based Zengids.

He destroyed the town built outside the city’s castle and killed most of its inhabitants after they were refused entry into the castle. The contemporary view of Saladin originates mainly from these texts.

In JulySaladin captured most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Gumushtigin requested Rashid ad-Din Sinangrand-master of the Assassins of Syria, who were already at odds with Saladin since he replaced the Fatimids of Egypt, to assassinate Saladin in his camp. There have been only innumerable expenses, the sending out of troops From then on, he ordered prayers in all the mosques of Syria and Egypt as the sovereign king and he issued at the Cairo mint gold coins bearing his official title— al-Malik an-Nasir Yusuf Ayyub, ala ghaya “the King Strong to Aid, Joseph son of Job; exalted be the standard.

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Consequently, the Nubians departed; but returned in and were again driven off. The battle ended in a Zengid victory, and Saladin is credited with having helped Shirkuh in one of the “most remarkable victories in recorded history”, according to Ibn al-Athiralthough more of Shirkuh’s men were killed and the battle is considered by most sources as not a total victory.

They broke the Crusader blockade, destroyed most of their ships, and pursued and captured those who anchored and fled into the desert. For an unknown reason he apparently changed his plans regarding the pilgrimage and was seen inspecting the Nile River banks in June. The art and architecture of Islamic Cairo 1st ed. In return for a diploma granting him the city, Nur al-Din swore allegiance to Saladin, promising to follow him in every expedition in the war against the Crusaders, and repairing damage done to the city.

After several minor skirmishes and a stalemate in the siege that was initiated by the caliph, Saladin intended to find a way to withdraw without damage to his reputation while still keeping up some military pressure.

We conquered it, but up to this day we have had no return and no advantage from it. The biographer Ibn Khallikan writes, “Historians agree in stating that [Saladin’s] father and family belonged to Duwin [ Dvin ].

He complied and the truce between him and the Zengids officially ended in September On 15 May, Nur ad-Din died after falling ill the previous week and his power was handed to his eleven-year-old son as-Salih Ismail al-Malik.

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Mujahed al-Din Bihruza former Greek slave who had been appointed as the military governor of northern Mesopotamia for his service to the Seljuksreprimanded Ayyub for giving Zengi refuge and in banished Ayyub from Tikrit after his brother Asad al-Din Shirkuh killed a friend of Bihruz in an honour killing. Saladin had by now agreed truces with his Zengid rivals and the Kingdom of Jerusalem the latter occurred in the summer ofbut faced a threat from the Ismaili sect known as the ” Assassins “, led by Rashid ad-Din Sinan.

According to Abu Shamahe intended to spend the fast of Ramadan in Egypt and then make the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in the summer. After establishing himself in Egypt, Saladin launched a campaign against the Crusaders, besieging Darum in Not discouraged by his defeat at Tell Jezer, Saladin was prepared to fight the Crusaders once again. The First Hundred Years, ed. The Christians sent a large portion of their army to besiege the fortress of Harim north of Aleppo, so southern Palestine bore few defenders.

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After a few Ayyubid raids—including attacks on Zir’inForbeletand Mount Tabor —the Crusaders still were not tempted to attack their main forceand Saladin led his men back across the river once provisions and supplies ran low. In the summer ofSaladin’s former palace administrator Qara-Qush led a force to arrest Majd al-Din—a former deputy of Turan-Shah in the Yemeni town of Zabid —while he was entertaining Imad ad-Din at his estate in Cairo.

Saladin was born in Tikrit in modern-day Iraq. He also reported that they intended to attack Medina and remove Muhammad ‘s body.